Phytoremediation of cadmium and nickel using Vetiveria zizanioides

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Assistant Professor of Rangeland Management Department. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources,Gorgan, Iran.

2 M.Sc student of Rangeland Management. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor of Environmental Sciences Department. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources,Gorgan, Iran.

Abstract

Phytoremediation is a well known heavy metals remediation technique for contaminated
soils and water. The present study was aimed to evaluate the uptake and dry weight
response of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) subjected to different levels of cadmium
(Cd) (0, 3, 6 and 12 mg/kg soil) and nickel (Ni) (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg soil) stress. The
experiment was conducted in pots using a completely randomized design with four
replications for three months. Concentration of Ni and Cd was determined using atomic
absorption spectrophotometer. The dried weight of aerial and underground parts of Vetiver
grass individuals at the end of the experiment were used to compare plant weight response
to different stresses. Statistical analysis was performed using version 18 of SPSS software
and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean comparisons were completed through Tukey
method. No restrictions on Cd uptake was observed in root and shoot of Vetiver grass, but
in the case of Ni, its concentration in shoots of vetiver grass decreased with higher metal
levels.The highest transfer factor (TF) among Ni treatments was observed at the lowest
concentration (50 mg/L) and the highest TF among Cd treatments was observed at the
highest concentration (12 mg/L). Results revealed that Ni and Cd had a significant (p<0.05)
positive effect on shoot and root dry weight of Vetiver grass. Our results suggest capability
of this plant for use in phytoextraction of Ni and phytostabilisation of Cd contaminated
soils.

Keywords


Adriano, D.C. 1986. Trace Elements in the Terrestrial Environment. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.
533pp.
Amna, A.N., Masood, S., Mukhtar,T., Kamran, M.A., Rafique, M., Munis, M.F.H., and Chaudhary, H.J.
2015. Differential effects of cadmium and chromium on growth, photosynthetic activity,and metal
uptake of Linumusitatissimum in association with Glomus intraradices. Environmental Monitoring
and Assessment,187, 1–11.
Baker, A.J.M., and Brooks, R.R. 1989. Terrestrial higher plants which hyper accumulate metallic
elements Review of their distribution, ecology, and phytochemistry. Biorecovery, 1, 81–126.
Besalatpour, A.A., Hajabbasi, M.A., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H., and Afyuni, M. 2008. Remediation of
petroleum contaminated soils around the Te hran oil refinery using Phytostimulation method. Journal
of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 15(4), 22-37.
Boominathan, R., and Doran P.M. 2003. Cadmium tolerance antioxidative defenses hyperaccumulator,
Thlaspi caerulescens. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 83,158-167.
Chhotu, D., Jadia, M., and Fulekar, H. 2008. Phytoremediation: the application of vermicompost to
remove zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel and lead by sunflower plant. Environmental Engineering and
Management Journal, 7(5), 547-558.
Davari, M., Homaee, M., and Khodaverdiloo, H. 2010. Modeling Phytoremediation of Ni and Cd from
Contaminated Soils Using Macroscopic Transpiration Reduction Functions. Journal of Water and Soil
Science, 14(52), 75-85.
Fatahi-Kiasari, E., Fotovvat, A., Astaraei, A.R., Haghnia, GH., 2010. Lead Phytoextraction from Soil by
Corn, Sunflower, and Cotton Applying EDTA and Sulfuric Acid. Journal of Water and Soil Science,
14(51), 57-69.
Goldbold, D.L., and Knetter, C. 1991. Use of root elongation studies to determine and toxicity in picea
abies seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology, 138, 231-235.
Gajewska, E., Skodowska, M., Saba, M., and Mazur, J. 2006. Effect of nickel on antioxidative enzyme
activities and chlorophyll contents in wheat shoots. Biology of Plant, 50, 653-659.
Ghaderian, M., Pakdaman, N., 2014. The Effect of Different Concentrations of Nickle in the Medium on
the Biomass Production, Nickle Accumulation and the Activity of Antioxidative Enzymes in some
Pistacia Species. Journal of Plant Process and Function, 3 (8), 1-12.
Hattori, H., Kuniyasu, K., Chiba, K., and Chino, M. 2006. Effect of chloride application and low soil pH
on cadmium uptake from soil by plants. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 52(1), 89-94.
Kimbrough, D.E., Cohen, Y., Winer, A.M., Creelman, L., and Mabuni, C. 1999. "A critical assessment of
chromium in the environment". Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, 29(1), 1-46.
Küpper, H., Lombi,E., Zhao, F.J., Wieshammer, G., and McGrath, S.P. 2001. Cellular compartmentation
of nickel in the hyperaccumulators Alyssum lesbiacum, Alyssum bertolonii and Thlaspi goesingense.
Journal of Experimental Botany, 52 (365), 2291–2300.
Lasat, M.M. 2002. Phytoextraction of toxic metals – A review of biological mechanisms. Journal of
Environmental Quality, 31, 109–120.
Lasat, M.M. 2003. Phytoextraction of metals from contaminated soil: A review of plant/soil/metal
interaction and assessment of pertinent agronomic issues. Journal of Hazardous Substance Research,
2:1-25.
Leyval, C., Turnau, K., and Haselwandter, K. 1997. Effect of heavy metal pollution on mycorrhizal
colonization and function: physiological, ecological and applied aspects. Mycorrhiza, 7, 39–153.
Liu, J.N., Zhou, Q. X., Sun, T., Ma, L.Q., and Wang, S. 2008. Identification and chemical enhancement
of two ornamental plants for phytoremediation. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and
Toxicology, 80, 260–265.
Morel, F.M., and Hering, J.G. 1993. "Principles and applications of aquatic chemistry". Metals. Springer-
Verlag, New York. 608P.
McEldowney, S., Hardman, D.J., and Waite, S. 1993. Treatment technologies. In: McEldowney, S.,
Hardman, D.J., Waite, S. (eds). Pollution, ecology and biotreatment. Singapore: Longman Singapore
Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 48–58.
Ma, L.Q., Angela, L., and Rao, G.N. 1997. Effect of incubation and phophate rock on lead extrability and
speciation in contaminated soils. Journal of Environtal Quality, 26,801–807.
Mahar, A., Wang, P., Ali. A., Awasthi, M.K., Lahori, A.H., Wang, Q., Li, R.H., and Zhang, Z.Q. 2016.
Challenges and opportunities in the phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils: A review.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 126, 111-121.
H. Niknahad Gharmakher et al. / Environmental Resources Research 6, 1 (2018) 49
Mckenna, I.M., Chaney, R.L., and Williams, F.M. 1993 The effects of cadmium and zinc interactions on
the accumulation and tissue distribution of zinc and cadmium in lettuce and spinach. Environmental
Pollution, 79, 113-120.
Ozkutlu, F., Ozturk, L., Erdem, H., McLaughlin, M., and Cakmak, I. 2007. Leaf-applied sodium chloride
promotes cadmium accumulation in durum wheat grain. Plant and soil, 290(12), 323-231.
Raskin, I., Smith, R.D., Salt, D.E., 1997. Phytoremediation of metals: Using plants to remove pollutants
from the environment. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 8(2), 221–226.
Riesen, O., Feller, U., 2005. Redistribution of Nickel, Cobalt, Manganese, Zinc and Cadmium via the
phloem in young and in maturing wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 28, 421 – 430.
Singh, O.V., Labana, S., Pandey, G., Budhiraja, R., and Jain, R.K. 2003. Phytoremediation: an overview
of metallicion decontamination from soil. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 61, 405–412.
Shen, Z.G., Zhao, F.J., and McGrath, S.P. 1997. Uptake and transport of zinc in the hyperaccumulator
Thlaspi caerulescens and the nonhyperaccumulator Thlaspi ochroleucum. Plant Cell and
Environment, 20,898–906.
Sarmadi, B., Ismail. I., and Hamid, M. 2011. Antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
inhibitory activities of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) autolysates. Food Research International, 44(1),
290–296.
Shu, W., and Xia, H. 2003. Integrated vetiver technique for remediation of heavy metal contamination:
potential and practice. The third international conference on Vetiver, Guangzhou, China. Pp.406-413.
Sewalem, N., Elfeky. S., and El-Shintinawy. F. 2014. Phytoremediation of lead and cadmium
contaminated soils using sunflower plant. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 10,122-134.
Sêkara, A., Poniedzia,M., Ciura,E.J. and Jêdrszczyk, E. 2005. Cadmium and Lead Accumulation and
Distribution in the Organs of Nine Crops: Implications for Phytoremediation. Polish Journal of
Environmental Studies,14 (4), 509-516.
Seregin, I.V., Kozhevnikova, A.D., Kazyumina, E.M., and Ivanov, V.B. 2003. Nickel toxicity and
distribution in maize roots. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 50, 793–800.
Thawornchaisit, U., and Polprasert, C. 2009. Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers for the stabilization of
cadmium in highly contaminated soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 165, 1109–1113.
Tallio, M.F., Pierandrei, A., Salerno, A., and Rea, E. 2003. Tolerance to cadmium of vesicular arbuscular
my corrhizae spurs isolated from a cadmium polluted an un polluted soil. Biology and Fertility of
Soils, 37, 211-214.
Tauqeer, H.M., Ali, S., Rizwan, M., Ali, Q., Saeed, R., and Iftikhar, U. 2016. Phytoremediation of heavy
metals by Alternanthera bettzickiana: growth and physiological response. Ecotoxicology and
Environmental Safety, 126, 138–146.